The occupation or style of someone who writes, especially for publication.
a. The act or process of producing and recording words in a form that can be read and understood
anything expressed in letters, esp a literary composition
the work of a writer
literary style, art, or practice
written form: give it to me in writing.
1. (Letters of the Alphabet (Foreign)) a group of letters or symbols written or marked on a surface as a means of communicating ideas by making each symbol stand for an idea, concept, or thing, by using each symbol to represent a set of sounds grouped into syllables (syllabic writing), or by regarding each symbol as corresponding roughly or exactly to each of the sounds in the language (alphabetic writing).
4. Something written, especially:a. Meaningful letters or characters that constitute readable matter: erased the writing on the blackboard.b. A written work, especially a literary composition: collected all the author’s writings.
5. Writings(used with a sing. or pl. verb)Bible The third of the three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures, composed of Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles. See Table at Bible.
graphomaniaan obsession with writing.
pictographythe use of pictorial symbols to communicate; picture writing with symbols that may be either ideographic or phonetic in function.
paleography, palaeography1. ancient forms of writing, as in inscriptions, documents, and manuscripts.
2. the study of ancient writings, including decipherment, translation, and determination of age and date.
penmanship1. the art or skill of handwriting or writing with a pen.
2. a particular person’s manner or characteristic style of handwriting.
hierogramsacred writing or a sacred character or symbol.
ideographya form of writing in which a written symbol represents an object rather than a word or speech sound.
graphorrhea1. writing in excessive amounts, sometimes incoherently.
2. extreme wordiness in writing.
1. the act of a person or thing that writes.2. matter written with a pen or the like: His writing is illegible.3. written form: Put the agreement in writing.4. a legal document, as a contract or deed.5. an inscription.6. literary or musical composition.7. the style, form, quality, etc., of such composition.8. the profession of a writer.9. the Writings,Hagiographa.
adj.calligraphy1. the art of beautiful penmanship.
2. handwriting in general.
3. good handwriting skills. Cf. cacography.
4. a script of a high aesthetic value produced by brush, especially that of Chinese, Japanese, or Arabic origin. — calligrapher, calligraphist, n. — calligraphic, calligraphical, adj.
chrysography1. the art of writing in inks containing gold or silver in suspension.
2. the gold writing produced in this way. — chrysographer, n.cryptography1. the science or study of secret writing, especially code and cipher systems.
2. the procedures and methods of making and using secret languages, as codes or ciphers. — cryptographer, cryptographist, n. — cryptographic, cryptographical, cryptographal, adj.
writing – the act of creating written works; “writing was a form of therapy for him”; “it was a matter of disputed authorship”authorship, penning, compositionverbal creation – creating something by the use of speech and language
drafting – writing a first version to be filled out and polished later
historiography – the writing of history
rewrite – rewrite so as to make fit to suit a new or different purpose; “re-write a play for use in schools”
indite, pen, write, compose – produce a literary work; “She composed a poem”; “He wrote four novels”write about, write of, write on – write about a particular topic; “Snow wrote about China”profile – write about; “The author of this article profiles a famous painter”paragraph – write paragraphs; work as a paragrapher
writing – the work of a writer; anything expressed in letters of the alphabet (especially when considered from the point of view of style and effect); “the writing in her novels is excellent”; “that editorial was a fine piece of writing”piece of writing, written material
literature – creative writing of recognized artistic valueliterature – published writings in a particular style on a particular subject; “the technical literature”; “one aspect of Waterloo has not yet been treated in the literature”
paragraph – one of several distinct subdivisions of a text intended to separate ideas; the beginning is usually marked by a new indented line
document, papers, written document – writing that provides information (especially information of an official nature)dramatic composition, dramatic work – a play for performance on the stage or television or in a movie etc.dithyramb – a wildly enthusiastic speech or piece of writingplagiarism – a piece of writing that has been copied from someone else and is presented as being your own worktranscript – something that has been transcribed; a written record (usually typewritten) of dictated or recorded speech; “he read a transcript of the interrogation”; “you can obtain a transcript of this radio program by sending a self-addressed envelope to the station”
.script, hand, print, printing, fist(informal), scribble, handwriting, scrawl, calligraphy, longhand, penmanship, chirographyIt’s a little difficult to read your writing.2.documents, works, books, letters, titles, opuses, publications, literature, compositions, belles-lettres
a. The writer of a book, article, or other text.b. One who practices writing as a profession.2. One who writes or constructs an electronic document or system, such as a website.3. An originator or creator, as of a theory or plan.4. Author God.tr.v.au·thored, au·thor·ing, au·thors1. Usage Problem To write or be the author of (a published text).2. To write or construct (an electronic document or system): authored the company’s website.
1. the composer of a literary work; writer.2. the literature produced by a writer: to edit an author.3. the maker of anything; creator; originator: the author of a new tax plan.4. Computers. the writer of a software program, esp. a hypertext or multimedia application.
author – writes (books or stories or articles or the like) professionally (for pay)writer
noun1.writer, composer, novelist, hack, creator, columnist, scribbler, scribe, essayist, wordsmith, penpusher, littérateur, man or woman of lettersShe’s the author of the book ‘Give your Child Music’.2.creator, father, parent, mother, maker, producer, framer, designer, founder, architect, planner, inventor, mover, originator, prime mover, doer, initiator, begetter, fabricatorthe authors of the plan
The result of the activity of writing is called a text, and the interpreter or activator of this text is called a reader
wiki= Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with symbols. While not all languages utilize a writing system, those with systems of inscriptions can complement and extend capacities of spoken language by enabling the creation of durable forms of speech that can be transmitted across space (e.g., correspondence) and stored over time (e.g., libraries or other public records). It has also been observed that the activity of writing itself can have knowledge-transforming effects, since it allows humans to externalize their thinking in forms that are easier to reflect on and potentially rework
As human societies emerged, collective motivations for the development of writing were driven by pragmatic exigencies like keeping history, maintaining culture, codifying knowledge through curricula and lists of texts deemed to contain foundational knowledge (e.g., The Canon of Medicine) or artistically exceptional (e.g., a literary canon), organizing and governing societies through the formation of legal systems, census records, contracts, deeds of ownership, taxation, trade agreements, treaties, and so on. For H.G. Wells, writing “made the growth of states larger than the old city states possible. It made a continuous historical consciousness possible. The command of the priest or king and his seal could go far beyond his sight and voice and could survive his death”. For example, around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration in Mesopotamia outgrew human memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form. In both ancient Egypt and Mesoamerica, on the other hand, writing may have evolved through calendric and political necessities for recording historical and environmental events.
Individual motivations for writing include improvised additional capacity for the limitations of human memory (e.g., to-do lists, recipes, reminders, logbooks, maps, the proper sequence for a complicated task or important ritual), dissemination of ideas (as in an essay, monograph, broadside, petition, or manifesto), imaginative narratives and other forms of storytelling, personal or business correspondence, and lifewriting (e.g., a diary or journal).
The major writing systems—methods of inscription—broadly fall into five categories: logographic, syllabic, alphabetic, featural, and ideographic (symbols for ideas). A sixth category, pictographic, is insufficient to represent language on its own, but often forms the core of logographies.
An alphabet is a set of symbols, each of which represents or historically represented a phoneme of the language. In a perfectly phonological alphabet, the phonemes and letters would correspond perfectly in two directions: a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, and a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling.
As languages often evolve independently of their writing systems, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language.
In most of the writing systems of the Middle East, it is usually only the consonants of a word that are written, although vowels may be indicated by the addition of various diacritical marks. Writing systems based primarily on marking the consonant phonemes alone date back to the hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt. Such systems are called abjads, derived from the Arabic word for “alphabet”.
نوشتن یا نگارش کنشی است که انسان بهوسیلهٔ آن اندیشههایش را به تصویر میکشد. با اختراعِ نوشتن، گام بزرگی در تمدن بشری برداشته شد. نوشتن همچنین عملی است که به کمکِ آن میتوان اطلاعات و اندیشهها را تحلیل، بررسی و بازبینی کرد. نگارش میتواند بهعنوان ابزاری برای استدلال و استنتاج و ابهامزدایی بهکار رود.
نوشتن دو کارکردِ ویژه دارد: ثبت اطلاعات و نشر اطلاعات. کارکردِ عمدهٔ سخنگفتن، نشر اطلاعات و برقراری ارتباط با دیگران است؛ اما دلیلِ ابتداییِ نوشتن، ترسِ انسان از فراموشی و نیاز به ثبتِ وقایع و دانستهها بودهاست. نزدیک به ۶۰۰۰ سال پیش، دهقانان مصری که موظف بودند مقداری از محصولات کشاورزی خود را بهعنوان مالیات به فرعون بدهند، تصویر سبد را به تعدادی که پرداخت کردهبودند بر دیوارهای خانهٔ خود حک میکردند.
با خوانندگی اشتباه نشود.
خواندن، فرایند شناختی از رمزگشایی نمادهایی نوشتاری فکر یا گفتار در استنتاج معانی از متن است. (همانطور که در خواندن یک کتاب یا خواندن موسیقی)
حصول توانایی در این زمینه مستلزم کسب مهارتهای زیر است:
- بازشناسی حروف، کلمهها و جملههای زبان در یک نوشته.
- درک معنای عناصر مذکور و کشف روابط معنایی موجود میان آنها که در نهایت به درک پیام جمله و متن منجر میشود.
خواندن مهارتی است که به وسیلهٔ آن میتوان از مطالب نوشتنی کسب اطلاع کرد. به شکل کامل ترمی توان گفت؛ خواندن فرایند فعالی است که خواننده، از طریق آن به پیامی که درون نوشته موجود است پی میبرد و خواننده مرتباً بر اساس آنچه قبلاً یاد گرفته در پی کشف چیزهای تازه است. سوادِ خواندن یکی از مهمترین تواناییهایی است که فراگیران [دانش آموز] در طول یادگیریهای خود در سالهای اولیهٔ دبستان کشف میکنند و در رشد هر کودک نقش حیاتی دارد. این توانایی اساس یادگیری را در موضوعات دیگر نیز فراهم میسازد. همچنین این توانایی میتواند برای خلاقیت و رشد فردی و اجتماعی به کار رود. خواندن از جمله وسایل مهم فهمیدن در دنیای کنونی است. فرد میتواند نتیجه تحقیقات و مطالعات دیگران را که مدتها به درازا کشیده است از طریق خواندن در مدت کوتاهی فرا بگیرد. خوب خواندن از عوامل مهم پیشرفت و سرگرمی و لذت بردن و رفع خستگی میباشد.
هدف اصلی نوشتن، ارسال پیام؛ و هدف اصلی خواندن، دریافت آن پیام است. حوزهای پژوهشی به نام مطالعات خوانایی به بررسی احتمال موفقیت خواننده در خواندن و درک نوشتهها میپردازد و موضوع خوانایی را از ابعاد مختلف بررسی میکند.
Readability is the ease with which a reader can understand a written text. In natural language, the readability of text depends on its content (the complexity of its vocabulary and syntax) and its presentation (such as typographic aspects like font size, line height, and line length). Researchers have used various factors to measure readability, such as
- Speed of perception
- Perceptibility at a distance
- Perceptibility in peripheral vision
- Reflex blink technique
- Rate of work (reading speed)
- Eye movements
- Fatigue in reading
Readability is more than simply legibility—which is a measure of how easily a reader can distinguish individual letters or characters from each other.
Higher readability eases reading effort and speed for any reader, but it is especially important for those who do not have high reading comprehension. In readers with average or poor reading comprehension, raising the readability level of a text from mediocre to good can make the difference between success and failure of its communication goals.
Readability exists in both natural language and programming languages though in different forms. In programming, things such as programmer comments, choice of loop structure, and choice of names can determine the ease with which humans can read computer program code.
- Literature is a subject for statistical analysis.
- Shorter sentences and concrete terms help people to make sense of what is written.
- Speech is easier to understand than text.
- Over time, text becomes easier if it is more like speech.
Gray and Leary then analyzed 228 variables that affect reading ease and divided them into four types:
They found that content was most important, followed closely by style. Third was format, followed closely by organization. They found no way to measure content, format, or organization—but they could measure variables of style. Among the 17 significant measurable style variables, they selected five to create a formula:
- Average sentence length
- Number of different hard words
- Number of personal pronouns
- Percentage of unique words
- Number of prepositional phrases
Many other studies looked at the effects on reading ease of other text variables, including:
- Image words, abstraction, direct and indirect statements, types of narration and sentences, phrases, and clauses.
- Difficult concepts.
- Idea density.
- Human interest.
- Active and passive voice.
- Structural cues.
- The use of images.
- Diagrams and line graphs.
- Fonts and layout.
- Document age.
|.||Creator – terms referring to the Judeo-Christian GodAlmighty, Divine, God Almighty, Godhead, Lord, Maker, JehovahBlessed Trinity, Holy Trinity, Sacred Trinity, Trinity – the union of the Father and Son and Holy Ghost in one Godheadhypostasis of Christ, hypostasis – any of the three persons of the Godhead constituting the Trinity especially the person of Christ in which divine and human natures are united|
|2.||creator – a person who grows or makes or invents thingsindividual, mortal, person, somebody, someone, soul – a human being; “there was too much for one person to do”architect, designer – someone who creates plans to be used in making something (such as buildings)artist, creative person – a person whose creative work shows sensitivity and imaginationbuilder – a person who creates a business or who organizes and develops a country; “empire builder”choreographer – someone who creates new dancesclothes designer, couturier, fashion designer, designer – someone who designs clothingcrafter, craftsman – a creator of great skill in the manual arts; “the jewelry was made by internationally famous craftsmen”developer – someone who develops real estate (especially someone who prepares a site for residential or commercial use)fantasist – a creator of fantasiesfarmer, granger, husbandman, sodbuster – a person who operates a farmartificer, discoverer, inventor – someone who is the first to think of or make somethingmaker, shaper – a person who makes thingsmodeler, modeller – a person who creates modelsconceiver, mastermind, originator – someone who creates new thingsproducer – someone who finds financing for and supervises the making and presentation of a show (play or film or program or similar work)|
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.